SECURITY PACKAGING SUPPLEMENT
Videojet provides a turnkey package serialization solution for printing and line data management with IMprints Track and Trace.
Facing inevitable, if relaxed, deadlines for serialization and e-pedigree, the pharma industry is off to a good start, deploying systems for unique marking of packaging and managing supply-chain data. Manufacturers are distributing serialized products they have identified as high risk, with the support of contract packagers and converters, which have established technology to help pharma firms investigate marking and data management alternatives.
Although industry is advised that it can’t start too soon in testing out the technology, a segment of pharma firms have held back on investment decisions while awaiting standards development and guidance. California’s Ridley-Thomas Bill, which starts track and trace implementation in 2015, gives companies more time to settle on technology and rollout schedules.
The Ridley-Thomas model, developed by Senator Mark Ridley-Thomas after working with industry groups over the past two years, gained support at the federal level last month. A revision of the Buyer-Matheson bill (HR 5839; Safeguarding America’s Pharmaceuticals Act) conforms with the Ridley-Thomas timelines, writing over tighter deadlines for unique marking and tracking with interoperable databases that the initial bill had required. The first draft mandated deadlines for serialized coding and track and trace systems in a 2012–2013 time frame.
“[The revision] is essentially the California law, including the timelines [for industry adoption]. We feel the revision is more realistic. There is no way all product could be serialized by [the initial Buyer deadlines],” says Paul Fowler, vice president of healthcare innovation, office of the CTO, Axway (Scottsdale, AZ).
“We believe [the bill] will likely be modified again before it is passed,” Fowler adds.
Observers say the bill will likely be introduced to the Health and Human Services committee and the new Congress early this year.
While the revised bill retains federal preemption of states’ e-pedigree requirements—a provision strongly favored by wholesalers—it departs at significant points from the original, apart from the push-back of the deadlines.
The bill doesn’t mandate FDA to establish a list of high-risk drugs. In the initial version, standardized numerical identifiers (SNIs) had to be placed on high-risk drugs 18 months after March 2010, when the act (in both its initial and revised versions) requires FDA to define the SNI. Following California’s schedule, manufacturers must apply an SNI to 50% of drugs by 2015, with 100% marked by 2016. Wholesalers and repackagers have to implement interoperable tracking systems by 2016, and pharmacies by 2017.
“The first draft allowed FDA to outline a timetable [for serialization based on risk],” says Brenda Kelly, director of marketing, SupplyScape (Woburn MA). “[The revised bill] gives manufacturers more flexibility.” Drug firms will likely focus on higher-risk product when they define the first 50% of drugs requiring serialization.
The revision introduces inference to Buyer, saying that FDA will define the circumstances when supply-chain parties may infer contents of cases and pallets. This conforms with Ridley-Thomas, which says inference will “facilitate efficiency and safety in the distribution chain.” Ridley-Thomas says “the board shall . . . define the circumstances under which participants in the distribution chain may infer the contents of a case, pallet, or other aggregate of individual units, packages, or containers of dangerous drugs, from a unique identifier associated with the case, pallet, or other aggregate, without opening each case, pallet, or other aggregate or otherwise individually validating each unit.”
Kelly says guidance and business processes remain to be established for inference. For instance, one question is how long should inference be relied on after a container is in custody.
“California felt it needed to provide more guidance on this issue,” Kelly says. “It is very conceivable a container might not be opened for six months. If the product inside turns out not to match the record, the product can’t be sold through, and responsibility for the discrepancy has to be resolved.”
Security pigments from EMD Chemicals can be transparently integrated into packaging in Kodak’s Traceless Color Shifting Inks system.
“Two years ago there was staunch opposition by California and at the federal level to inference,” says Fowler, a former vice president of e-commerce and emerging technologies at McKesson Corp. “Inference is now acceptable, but legislation has yet to say what it will look like.”
“Reading the case tag isn’t inference, that’s hierarchy,” Fowler says. “HDMA proposes some level of validation of the tags and the product inside. For example, you might have to read a percentage of the products at the edge of the case.”
Inference supports manufacturers that favor item-level 2-D codes and alleviates wholesalers’ concerns over item-level bar coding’s impact on distribution efficiency.
“RF makes great economic sense on the case and pallet level, which is the Walmart model, and it’s technically much easier to apply [at that level],” says Fowler. “[Allowing inference] makes it much less likely that distributors will demand [item level] RFID. Before inference, there was no way they could do their job without it. You will see a lot of people de-investing in RFID as a strategy.”
The Buyer revision “responds to concerns expressed by the retail pharmacy industry,” says Paul Kelly, vice president of federal affairs, National Association of Chain Drug Stores (NACDS).
“We recognize [the revision] as important progress, and we remain open to working with the bill sponsors to reach accommodations that will satisfy [all parties in the supply chain],” Paul Kelly says. “Ultimately, it still requires track and trace systems, [about which] many of our members continue to have cost and implementation concerns. [But] we all have the same goal, which is to secure the chain and ensure that drugs dispensed to consumers are 100% safe.”
An aspect of HR 5839 retained in the revised bill is that interim e-pedigree documentation requirements defined in the bill will not apply to drugs subject to the drug identification and tracking system regulations.
The bill’s requirements for passing along e-pedigree documents “shall not apply with respect to any prescription drug that is subject to a requirement . . . for an effective drug identification and tracking system based on [SNIs],” the bill says.
“[Buyer] sets up track and trace as a replacement for e-pedigree, which is a misguided approach,” says SupplyScape’s Brenda Kelly. “E-pedigree and track and trace should be considered complementary elements of drug security. For example, Ridley-Thomas requires both e-pedigree recordkeeping and serialization as key aspects of track and trace security.”
“[Revised HR 5839] seems to focus on improving efficiency,” Kelly says. “But by dropping a core security feature that industry has already invested in and developed with partners, it could increase the cost of healthcare.”
“At the end of the day, a law titled ‘Safeguarding America’s Pharmaceuticals Act’ should ensure drug security,” Kelly adds. “But instead, are we taking a giant step backward on patient safety for the next six years?”
For on-dosage marking, NanoGuardian encrypts overt and forensic marks that can contain unlimited amounts of information to support product tracking.
Gregg Metcalf, industry market manager, strategic initiatives, Nosco Inc. (Gurney, IL), says, “the extensions really don’t do anybody any good at the end of the day.”
“Many companies were ready to pull the trigger [to conform with California’s earlier deadline or in anticipation of Buyer’s first deadline],” Metcalf says. “People have had their serialization budgets pulled from them. There is available and deployable technology that they won’t now investigate for another two years.”
Jeffrey Shuren, FDA’s associate commissioner for policy and planning, has told Pharmaceutical & Medical Packaging News: “Manufacturers should not wait to explore what their particular technological and operational needs will be for adding unique identifiers to their packaging.”
Under the current Food and Drug Amendments Act of 2007 that tasks FDA with developing standards for an SNI, authentication, and track and trace, the agency has the flexibility to enact either guidance or regulation, Shuren said.
Would FDA rule making conform with the Buyer deadlines? As Buyer imposes mandated regulations, might FDA favor stricter requirements?
Metcalf says there is a view in the industry that current deadlines might be “reeled in” at the federal level. “There is enough information out there on the data carriers and the technology,” he says. “We don’t have to wait six years to get this thing started.”
Bob Neagle, business unit manager, brand protection solutions group, Videojet Technologies Inc., takes a different view.
“I envision FDA using the Ridley-Thomas bill as a framework for a harmonized system across the United States,” says Neagle. “A significant amount of back and forth took place between the California Board of Pharmacy, the state’s legislature, and Big Pharma to come up with a set of regulations that was agreeable to all parties, so I don’t see FDA just throwing that away.”
Neagle sees a big increase in investment in 2010, 2011, where large companies would begin outfitting, for example, 15 lines per year.
“This year we have seen a variety of pilot lines and some very limited rollouts. We expect to see a slight increase in 2009, but that will [still] be a fraction of what needs to get done,” he adds.
If some companies will be delaying decisions on serialization, many are investigating resources and testing the technology. Contract packagers have sought to equip lines so as to flexibly and cost-effectively meet their customers’ varying preferences.
Catalent has partnered with Secure Symbology (Wayne, NJ) to test its software coding system and database solution on a variety of packaging. Sharp Corp. (Allentown, PA) has outfitted lines as demo labs where customers can trial 2-D and RFID coding on items and cartons.
Customers are at a stage where they are still evaluating package coding and serialization alternatives, says Larry Blake, director, marketing, plastics and contract packaging, Alcan Global Pharmaceutical Packaging, (Pennsauken, NJ).
Alcan Packaging is looking to create a “test bench” for customers to perform proof-of-concept in precommercialization trials. Production lines would feature 2-D printing and reading capability, as well as RFID reading on either cartons or Alcan Packaging’s in-mold security bottle tagging. Lines would be equipped for aggregating item numbers, thereby establishing parent-to-child relationships among packaging levels.
“We are trying to outfit our lines with ‘à-la-carte system options’ so customers can easily figure out what best suits their brand’s packaging,” Blake says. “As a service provider, we need to offer flexibility. We have to be able to use off-the-shelf solutions for pressure-sensitive labels or standard printing on blisters and cartons.”
Alcan Packaging also offers a third option to overt 2-D bar coding and RFID tagging, with the N’Crypt EZ-ID Security and Track and Trace Solution introduced last month. Companies can ramp-up their e-pedigree testing with the addition of a covert 2-D bar code.
In the system, a security solution works in concert with bar coding and standard bar code readers modified to simultaneously read and link both a covert and overt code, creating a new symbology. A printed invisible bar code is associated with an overt bar code, or an RFID tag code. Readers used in the field scan both the overt and covert codes to establish product authenticity. The solution adapts authentication technology from Prime NanoTech (Dayton, OH) with current bar code reading technology.
“The N’Crypt EZ-ID Security and Track and Trace Solution adds integrity to a pure bar code solution by combining multiple layers of authentication with track and trace. This adds to the options we are offering for companies looking to meet e-pedigree requirements and authenticate product at any point in the supply chain,” says Scott Denley, global product manager, Alcan Packaging-Kreuzlingen (Switzerland).
Taggants comprised of nanoscale luminescent pigments encapsulated in glass matrices are formulated by Prime NanoTech for use in a range of inks and coatings. The markers are invisible to the eye.
Alcan Packaging will preprint invisible bar codes on a package using ink with the taggants. After the package is filled and sealed in-line, the overt 2-D code is printed adjacent to or over the invisible code by the Alcan converting site or by their contract packaging division.
Line-mounted Prime NanoTech Lumid readers read the overt and covert codes simultaneously, associate them, encrypt the data, and send the data via Internet to a Trusted Management System (TMS) that stores and manages the data for authentication.
“The covert code doesn’t become security-relevant until a new symbology is created when it is linked with the overt code [by the software] on the packaging line,” Denley says.
Investigators use Lumid readers that are modified commercially available 2-D bar code readers to read the overt and covert codes in one pass. Before managing encrypted data sent by the reader, the TMS first verifies that reader electronics are registered. Readers can also be designated to specific sites and persons. If reader validity is denied, no package authentication can take place.
If the association of the overt and covert codes read in the field does not match the stored authentic data in the TMS, the package is deemed counterfeit.
Alcan Packaging sees an opportunity to perform the entire process of the security tagging, packaging, overt marking, and code commissioning at its Bethlehem, PA, facility. It will also be looking to validate the process in trials with pharma brand owners.
“This is an efficient security solution from an ease-of-application standpoint, as it integrates with standard marking processes,” says Blake. “Manufacturers can create a tunnel in which supply is tracked with designated readers, and counterfeit product and readers used outside of the chain will be immediately flagged.”
The solution can be deployed on cartons, labels, blister lid stock, or Alcan Packaging’s plastic in-mold security bottles, as well as for cases and pallets, Blake says.
“N’Crypt EZ-ID Security and Track and Trace will be a standard process within Alcan Packaging that links security into one robust system in which product is tagged, read, and parent-to-child package-level linkage is established,” says Blake.
Readers are used to discover ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂultra-covertÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂ markers in a layered security solution offered by Eastman Kodak Co. and Merck KGaA.
Converters are supplying preprinted uncoded labels or uncoded RFID tag inlays, or preserialized packaging, to manufacturers and contract packagers in support of serialized coding.
Neagle says manufacturers are looking for preserialized labels to “offload the responsibility early in the implementation cycle. They don’t want to introduce a variable in the line that could significantly disrupt production.” Over time, some will chose to bring the marking in-house to afford flexibility. They can avoid lead time issue and choose to mark elsewhere than on the label, he adds.
Videojet offers its IMprints Track and Trace solution, a hardware and software suite that generates and prints unique codes and establishes package-level hierarchies.
Mark Andy provides a rewinder as a Videojet partner for supporting off-line coding. “We recommend that converters using our Imprints for Converters solution do the coding off-line on the rewinder, where we have integrated our printing and control and camera systems,” Neagle says.
Videojet displayed an in-line turnkey system at Pack Expo International 2008 that marked and packaged bottles, interfacing with Omega Design Corp.’s unscrambler and bundling equipment.
IMprints CodeMaster software generates unique codes that are applied using Videojet ink-jet, thermal transfer, or laser coders. “Alias serial numbers” 2-D-printed on the bottle bottoms are cross-referenced in a database with usable 96-bit GTIN serial numbers later applied to the bottle labels. The temporary codes enable a Cognex camera to identify all of the units after shrink-wrap bundling. A serialized shipping container code is printed on labels on the robotically picked bundles. Production transaction files stored in a Microsoft sequel server database can be transferred to an EPCIS-compliant data repository.
Nosco is helping contract packager customers meet demands from their drug manufacturer partners in Europe for 2-D serialized bar codes. “We are involved with a half dozen programs where the product is going to Europe, and the coding has to conform with disparate regulations in those countries,” says Metcalf.
“Most of our customers are asking for preserialized 2-D codes and precoded RF tags, so all they have to do is read the number, capture it, and verify it to a database,” he says. “We work closely with the customer to establish how many characters need to be encoded and what size the bar code will have to be. The code size has to be recognizable by the camera at Systech’s coding and commissioning station.”
“Systech is writing, reading and verifying coding to RF tags for some customers,” he adds. “For others, we supply the preprinted labels without the 2-D code, or labels with RF inlays or RF-tagged cartons, and the customer controls the coding.”
Keller Crescent (Evansville, IN) is the first converter to actively promote the CodeStream laser marking technology from FujiFilm Hunt Chemicals USA Inc. The converter has been testing the system for laser marking on labels and cartons, working with FujiFilm Hunt, Videojet, and Label Vision Systems, says Ernest Chaplin, vice president of marketing, Keller Crescent.
CodeStream system is a transparent water-based coating for packages that reacts to laser energy by changing color. As a non-laser-ablating technology, the system eliminates the particulate plumes generated by ablation, allowing for cleaner production.
CodeSteam is cost-competitive with thermal-transfer and ink-jet printing. And the laser marking reduces downtime required for printer maintenance, and eliminates printing consumables, says Scott Clouston, vice president and general manager, business development group, FujiFilm.
In addition, the absence of particulates, volatile organic compounds, and cartridge and ribbon waste generated by printing makes CodeStream an eco-friendly solution, Clouston says.
“Thermal-transfer and ink-jet printing can be removed with solvents. With CodeStream, if you tried to remove the mark with a solvent, the area turns black, showing it has been tampered with,” he adds.
Clouston says several pharma companies are qualifying the system for marking 2-D and alphanumeric characters on bottles and vials.
Chaplin says CodeStream marking is more cost-effective than printing, and offers production advantages when compared with laser ablating and other laser printing systems. While some laser-printing systems avoid ablation—the coating undergoes a white-to-black color change under laser activation—CodeStream’s water-based coating has proven to be easier to use.
“CodeStream is expensive, but its goes on thinner. The yield per pound is fantastic. We have found that the water-based chemistry is very controllable and friendly,” says Chaplin, adding that the process of applying other coatings can be slower, and that other coatings can tend to disappear over time.
The converter has applied CodeStream coatings to labels in non-commercial test runs for evaluation by prospective customers. Keller Crescent also tested coding of treated labels at line speed. After a 2-µm layer of the coating and an overcoat of varnish were applied, a Videojet low-energy CO2 laser printed 2-D codes that were read and graded with a press-mounted Label Vision Systems print-quality verification system.
The test confirmed that the laser excites the coating without blasting off the protective varnish as occurs in laser ablation, Chaplin reports.
The converter recently provided CodeStream-treated cartons to Videojet for test lab marking and evaluation, says Chaplin.
“We believe we have a commercially viable product in CodeStream that customers can use for printing variable data for authenticating their products in the marketplace,” Chaplin says.
As the United States has favored a track and trace or e-pedigree model that follows product as it moves through the supply chain, Europe has promoted a “book-end” model, where serialized product is authenticated before dispensing at the pharmacy.
Aegate (London), whose services enable pharma-firm-to-pharmacy communication, is the latest vendor joining the Global Track and Trace Alliance formed by Axway. With partners including Systech and Blue Vector, the alliance aims to offer a solution for serialization and track and trace that meets regulatory requirements and creates business value.
“We know our systems are integratable and interoperable,” says Axway’s Fowler. “We want to be able to go to customers with a solution enabling end-to-end security in the supply chain.”
Systech’s systems address serialization and commissioning of products on a line. Blue Vector supports functions including RFID-based edgeware-managed specialty drug distribution.
The alliance also focuses on exchange of supply data between partners based on Axway’s Synchrony IT platform solution. Axway has provided drug manufacturers and wholesalers with platforms for e-commerce since acquiring Cyclone Commerce in 2006.
“There are over $1.3 billion worth of healthcare transactions going through our software in the United States each day,” Fowler says. “We already own the gateways. Track and trace is a natural extension of our e-commerce services, [addressing the challenge of] safely, securely, and accurately transferring the files from partner to partner throughout the supply chain. We have added the Axway e-pedigree and track and trace applications, so aligned with our partners, we can offer complete services for supply-chain visibility.”
Mark Seitz, global consultant for logistics functions, Eli Lilly, said at the Logi-Pharma conference last year that Eli Lilly began a pilot with Aegate in 2006 in Belgium. The system has helped the company track where its drugs are being sold in Europe, he said.
Lilly provides Aegate with its serialized codes and submits the codes to the health authority in Belgium, which is required before the product can be sold in the market.
Aegate’s system has been deployed by countries including Greece and Italy where serialization is similarly mandated, as a means of policing reimbursement fraud.
Aegate delivers a real-time message to the pharmacist—along with any other information on the product and therapy the manufacturer might want to send—when the pharmacist scans the bar code. Aegate’s messaging is relayed through the pharmacy’s patient medical record software so it’s “seamless” for the pharmacist, says Alison Williams, vice president of marketing, Aegate.
“We have a strong data cleaning process [that prevents] acceptance of duplicate or incomplete codes,” she says. “[Besides product ID], we can issue a live recall. On a recall, the system is frozen until the pharmacist acknowledges a pop-up window.”
EFPIA is launching a pilot this year to test out the book-end concept in one country. The agency will select a company to provide a centralized data repository, manage the pilot, and train pharmacists. It will select about 1 million units that manufacturers are serializing with 2-D bar codes following the GS1 data structure standard. Pharmacies will be enlisted to participate.
Fowler says that obstacles to the model in the United States include that retailers such as Walmart don’t allow sharing of their dispensing data with manufacturers.
Also, the United States seems to be favoring the more expansive track and trace model that looks to authenticate product in general distribution throughout the supply chain, and discover wrongdoers, as well as ensure product safety, Fowler says.
“Aegate has had success in European countries that have mandated serialization,” he says. “We are proposing a pilot with Aegate in Europe, and also looking at how its solution might be adopted to the U.S. market,” says Fowler.
“The serialization being proposed in the United States is only down to the pharmacy level, not the level of distribution to the patient. The Aegate model is really a reimbursement strategy model, with a patient safety aspect to it.”
“We think there is an opportunity for this in specialty drug distribution where the market is more controllable. You have a relatively small amount of product going to subsets of patients, that is easily serialized using RF tags, outfitted with temperature tracking devices, and sent to clinics or directly to patients’ homes.
“We believe Aegate can add real value relative to analytics and payment strategies. You can trigger the payment strategy once you authenticate that the drug can be given to the patient,” Fowler says.
Security pigments from EMD Chemicals can be transparently integrated into packaging in Kodak’s Traceless Color Shifting Inks system.
Authentication technologies are among the promising technologies that FDA is investigating for the purpose of developing standards for securing the supply chain. Companies have stressed to the agency the importance of using security features on packaging in concert with a track and trace solution.
“Companies often need to develop a global strategy because countries might favor different security devices,” says Nosco’s Metcalf. “A customer might start with micro-printing, then move to a UV feature, and then to holograms, color shifting inks, or taggants, if they know counterfeiting is an issue.”
“We have customers using very high level forensic taggants for two or three years now on the same products with a high degree of success,” he adds.
Eastman Kodak Co. (Rochester, NY) and Merck KGaA have launched a layered security solution that combines overt and covert features in one step. Kodak Traceless Color Shifting Inks are press-ready inks that incorporate pigments from EMD Chemicals, the wholly owned subsidiary of Merck KGaA.
The inks offer a dynamic color shift depending on angle of view as an overt feature. For covert investigation, Kodak offers a handheld reader that analyzes the image created by the Traceless markers and signals a pass-fail response.
The solution simplifies the application of security markers in manufacturing as well as reading by field investigators, says Bob Taylor, general manager, security solutions, Kodak Graphic Communications Group.
The markers are deployed at an “ultracovert level” at orders of magnitude lower (in parts per million) than typical taggant systems, he says.
“We have been able to employ Kodak’s Traceless markers across a number of ink and varnish applications. The [inks] provide a new layered security solution that is cost-effective and press-ready technology,” Taylor adds.
The inks come in seven color pairs for easy integration into packaging designs to make them more decorative and less obvious.
“The construction of our Securalic security pigments is unique to Merck KGaA. Our products are transparent or semitransparent, so they are easily integrated into the overall design of a label or package,” says Aram Terzian, marketing director, PPS, pigments, at EMD Chemicals.
Taylor notes that as two companies with worldwide reach, the partners can support customers with globally deployed products.
“The goal of brand protection is to put obstacles in the path of counterfeiters, to encourage them to look at a different brand, a different industry, or better yet, a different occupation,” Taylor says. “Kodak has been out front in giving public information to a market that is typically veiled in secrecy. We think it’s a better strategy to make consumers aware of the growing problem and that technology can be brought to bear to help mitigate this issue.”
Converters offer choices among dozens of overt and covert authentication technologies for labels, inserts, and cartons. In Keller Crescent’s Brand Shield portfolio, security features include mechanical alterations to package substrates. “We can die-cut a label in such as a way as to impart unique characteristics that a customer could use to confirm the package’s authenticity,” Chaplin says.
Although overt and covert features provide an immediate means for product authentication, packaging can be discarded in the process of legitimate repackaging, or by counterfeiters. The International Authentication Association in its comments to FDA stressed the value of tamper-evident closures that can’t be copied or altered once affixed.
Direct nanotagging of product is an alternative that many manufacturers have investigated, vendors say.
“Although some of the tamper-evident technology is very promising, in some cases marking the dosage is the only way you can discover what is going on with your product,” says Jim Rittenburg, vice president, healthcare and life sciences, Authentix (Dallas). For example, he says, intellectual property owners can ensure their active ingredients are being used by formulators in making the product.
“Manufacturers have to evaluate the potential of their brands to be diverted or counterfeited in deciding what technologies to use, Rittenburg adds. “In the United States, product is being put into new bottles, so you are losing the identification from the manufacturer.”
Product tagging helps uncover instances of counterfeit medications in authentic packaging and legitimate medications in counterfeit packaging, says Dean Hart, executive vice president, NanoGuardian (Skokie, IL).
“There are many possible intercessions into the supply chain,” Hart notes. “Counterfeit product can be introduced at the pharmacy level when product is dispensed, after secure tracking to the pharmacy. In Europe, where parallel trade is a vibrant industry, a significant proportion of medications are repackaged. Once the medication is repackaged, the security feature is basically lost. The same is true in the U.S. market where the vast majority of medications are legally repackaged, including the distribution of medications directly to patients.”
NanoGuardian’s technology encrypts three security feature layers into coated or uncoated tablets, without adding additional components to the product. The semiovert layer is a 1 × 0.6 mm-mark visible to the eye as a “shiny spot.” Within the semicovert mark lies a micron-sized covert mark, such as a company logo. The covert mark is seen with a 15× jeweler’s loupe or hand-held microscope for field identification. At the forensic level, covert nanocodes are used that can only be seen with special equipment at NanoGuardian’s brand integrity center.
The on-dosage coding can contain tracing information such as country of intended distribution and expiry dates, and can be associated with on-package coding, allowing each dose to be authenticated and traced back through the supply chain to a secure database.
“On-dosage authentication combined with market monitoring provides an early warning system of illegal activity, and a strong supplement to supply-chain track and trace,” Hart says.